Yurumein

Garifuna History/ Garifuna Communities & History of potential Garifuna Flag/Colors

On May 18, 2001, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, (UNESCO), proclaimed the Garifuna Language, Music and Dance a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. We are thankful that Unesco came to this conclusion therefore e intentionally preserve and present our culture in honor of our ancestors and in our quest to be responsible to future generations to come. The Garifuna are people of West African and Amerindians descent who live along the Caribbean coast of St Vincent, Honduras, Belize, Guatemala, Nicaragua and in the United States of America since World War I.

The Garifuna share a common origin, language, system of beliefs, customs, rituals, annual processionals, repertoire of dance-song genres, social-commentary, work songs, and popular music. Though the Garifuna were called the Black Carib by early European explorers, today they are collectively known as the Garinagu. Of the estimated 750,000 Garifuna more than 400,000 live in Central America, with the vast majority residing in Honduras, home to 46+ Garifuna communities.

There are also six Garifuna communities in Belize, 2 in Guatemala, 5 in Nicaragua, 9 in St. Vincent. Garifuna in search of better employment and education opportunities began to migrate in large numbers to the United States in the 1950s but many served in the US military in World War I in  1914 and later on during World War II in the late  1930s to mid 1940s . Of the tens of thousands of Garifuna that currently reside in the United States, the vast majority live in major urban centers, primarily New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Miami, New Orleans, Houston, Washington DC, and Atlanta.

The Garifuna are the product of genetic mixtures and cultural fusions of West Africans and Amerindians, specifically Carib and Arawak. These West African cultures are found in current day Nigeria, Benin, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Mali, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo while the Amerindian Native American cultures are from the Orinoco River Basin in Venezuela and coastal Guyana.

The history of the Garifuna begins hundreds of years before the arrival of Africans and later Europeans to the New World. Carbon-14 data suggests that between 1010 BCE and 400 ADE Arawak Indians migrated from the upper Orinoco River basin to the Antilles (Olsen 1974, 225).

Around 1220 AD the more aggressive Carib of Guyana, migrated north into the lesser and Greater Antilles of the Caribbean. During raids on the docile Arawak, Carib warriors would kill the Arawak men and take the women as their wives. The fusion of these cultural groups on the island of St. Vincent in the Lesser Antilles resulted in an Arawak and gender-based language that includes numerous Carib words (spoken primarily by men) and that has survived among the Garifuna today.

The first encounters between Africans and Amerindians on St. Vincent, the ancestral home of the Garifuna, are reported to have occurred in 1307 and 1312 when expeditions led by “Voyager King” Mansa Abubakari II an African emperor of current day Mali traveled west on the trade winds to the eastern Caribbean. This is the narrative that we chose to adopt if any as the origin of our African side as a people.  However, most accounts (written by non Garifuna) of the origin of the Garifuna suggest that they are the product of an African-Amerindian fusion that began in 1635 when Africans aboard two Spanish slave ships in route to Barbados, swam to nearby St. Vincent Island after the ships were lost during a storm. Although we do not accept this theory, we agree that run away slaves were welcomed in our communities. On St. Vincent (called “Yurumein” by the local Amerindians), West Africans of various cultures intermixed with the Arawak-Carib people that lived there and adopted their language and many of the customs that were similar to their own.

The Garifuna successfully defended the island from the British, Spanish, and French until Joseph Chatoyer, the paramount chief of the many Garifuna tribes on St. Vincent was killed during the British-Garifuna War in 1795. This resulted in the Garifuna being exiled and not deported, from the mainland of St. Vincent. Hands full of Garifuna were able to hide in the bush and remain on the mainland St. Vincent and live there to this day, but they have forgotten their roots by the force of the iron fist of British rule. The remaining were transported to Balliceaux a barren island off the coast of St. Vincent, and soon thereafter transported on 11 ships to Roatan an Island off the coast of Honduras in 1797. Although 4300 to 5000 Garifuna began the journey to Central America only 2,026 survived. Many died of malnutrition and a malignant fever, possibly yellow fever. The Garifuna began a series of migrations from mainland Honduras to Belize in 1802, to Guatemala in 1804 and later to Nicaragua.

Garifuna, in search of better employment and education opportunities, began migrating in large numbers to New York, Los Angeles, Houston and Chicago in the 1950s and to other urban American centers in the decades that followed. This shift in population within the region resulted in hundred of thousands of Garifuna in the US.

We are Doctors, Attorneys, educators, Engineers, Financial Advisors, entrepreneurs, Professional athletes, Politicians, singers, dancers, writers, business men, painters, truck drivers, military servicemen, ministers & priests. There is a strong desire among people of Garifuna heritage to strategically maintain our identity and culture. We do this in a number of different ways including fellowship gatherings. We thank you for taking the time to read our story. Welcome to our world, we are the Garifuna Nation. Listed below are all of the Garifuna Communities in the world. 

                               Garifuna Communities World Wide as January 2019
                                                  
                             COMUNIDADES GARIFUNA DE HONDURAS:  Huliligati

                                                         La region de Cortes

 

1. Masca- Másiga
2. Travesía 
3. Bajamar- Bahamar
4. Sarawaina

 

                                                          Region of Atlántida 1


5. Río Tinto- Riutintu / Intintu
6. Miami  (Punta Sal)
7. Tornabé- Lagiriga-wewe
8. San Juan- Durugubuti Beibei
9. La Ensenada– Bèidirugu
10.Triunfo de la Cruz- Dúfigati / Turompu
11. Nueva Go (Zambuco)
12. Cayo Venado
13. La Rosita 

14. Barra Vieja

15. Ceiba Mocha o Monte Pobre 

 

                                                          Region de Atlantida 2

 
16. Corozal - Gurusali / Pintóu
17. Sambo Creek 
18. Nueva Armenia 
19. Río Esteban- Tibiniriba

 

                                                           Region de Colon1

 
20. Guadalupe - Funda 
21. San Antonio- Márugurugu
22. Santa Fe - Giriga
23. Cristales - Kristalu/ Louba / Chalacha
24. Río Negro- Blagríba / Gariwalu

25. Barranco Blanco

26. Silin 

27. Castilla

28. Santa Rosa de Aguan-lawan

29. Limón - Limún 

30. Vallecito


                                                             Region de Colon 2

 

31. Punta Piedra- Dübugati

32. Cusuna -Gusunougati

33. Ciriboya- Mañali

34. Iriona Viejo- Liyumoun

35. San José de la Punta

36. Sangrelaya 

37. Cocalito- Fàlumarugu

                                                               Region de JFB

38. San Isidro de Tocamacho – Dugamacho

39. San Pedro de Tocamacho 

40. Tranvio Tocamacho

41. Coyoles

42. Batalla- Badayougati

43. Pueblo Nuevo- Ñotòn

44. .Buena vista

45. La Fé

46. Plaplaya- Blaguriba 

                                                      Region de Islas de la Bahia

47.Punta Gorda- Peini / Igiri Dubuneti ( First Garifuna settlement in Honduras)

48.Cayo Chachauate 

49.Cayo Bolaños

50.Cayo East end /Easten

                                                   

                                                   GUATEMALA – Wadimalu 

Livingston - Labuga, La Buga
Puerto Barrios- Báriu


Gangadiwali (not a Garifuna community) – Sacred Garifuna place in LaBuga (The Promised Land). Garinagu in LaBuga are connected to this small parcel of land through their Ancestors. It has been forty years since the exodus of the Garifuna people from Gangadiwali began.


                                                   NICARAGUA – Nigarawa 

 

1. La Fé
2. Orinoco - Urinugu
3. Brown Bank
4. Saint Vincent

5. Marshall Point

 

                                                           BELIZE - Balisi

1. Stann Creek - Dangriga   (Town)
2. Punta Gorda - Peini (Town)

3.  Hopkins - Yugadan
4. Seine Bight - Seinbeidi
5. Georgetown 
6. Barranco - Barangu



                                    YURUMEIN - SAINT VINCENT & THE GRENADINES

1. Sandy Bay - Sandibei
2. Owia - Ouwe ya (die here)
3. Fancy
4. Rosebank
5. Greiggs
6. Rose Hall

7. Chateaubelair

8. Overland

9. Campden (after an eruption of the Volcano in 1910s or so, people had to leave the area and moved about 20 miles to the Leeward side to an area now called Campden and they never moved back. Information provided by David William.

 

                                                              United States:

  1. Houston

  2. New York

  3. New Orleans

  4. Atlanta

  5. Seattle

  6. Boston

  7. Chicago

  8. California

  9. Virginia

  10. Delaware

  11. Las Vegas

  12. Florida

  13. New Jersey

  14. Washington DC

HISTORY OF GARIFUNA FLAG 

( FOR THE RECORD A GARIFUNA FLAG DOES NOT EXIST BUT THE COLORS DO. We do not agree with the history of Garifuna people as written in this narrative) 

The website of the National Garífuna Council of Belize has a detailed description of the flag: "The Garifuna flag consists of three horizontal strips of black, white and yellow, in that order, starting from the top. This flag has long been accepted internationally as the flag of the Garifuna Nation and the colours have been used in any forum where Garifuna people assert their Garifuna identity. The flag of the National Garifuna Council is identical to the Garifuna flag with the addition of the NGC logo set in a white circle in the center. 
This flag represents an evolution that commenced with the Carib International Society (CIS) whose flag was made up of horizontal strips of red, yellow and black.  Red (funati) stood for the blood of the Garifuna, black (würiti) the skin of the Garifuna and yellow (dumari) the food of the Garifuna. T.V. Ramos added the strip of white (haruti) in the middle, substituting it for the red, when he formed the Carib Development Society (CDS). Carib International Society, as the name implies, was international in scope and its development appears to have been facilitated by the convergence of Garinagu from the various countries in places like Puerto Barrios where they flocked in search of employment with the United Fruit Company. The area of operations of the Carib Development Society, on the other hand, was limited to Belize although the influence of its initiatives spread far beyond the borders of Belize and laid the foundation for the later emergence of its successor, the National Garifuna Council."
The author of the notice gives an interpretation of the colours, stating that there are no written source for that
"What is the significance of the colours of the Garifuna flag? This question has been asked quite frequently and some attempts have been made to answer it although I am not aware of any written explanation. I will now try to piece together what I have heard, with the hope that this will evoke some reaction that can contribute to a full and complete documentation of the significance of the colours. It should also be noted that it is people who give meaning to symbols. We, therefore, have the option of expanding on whatever meanings have been handed down to us by the originators of the CIS and CDS flags.
Black - The black strip, which is located at the top, represents the black ancestry of the Garifuna people. The people have always acknowledged the African input into what became the Garifuna people, a phenomenon that occurred in St. Vincent starting in the seventeenth Century.
This colour, at another level, recognizes the hardships and injustices that the people have had to endure, their struggles for survival and the odds that they have had to overcome in the course of their history. Apart from the experience of the Middle Passage, which we share with other black people of the Americas, there was the imprisonment on Balliceaux, the exile from our Vincentian homeland after the so called Carib Wars and the replay of the Middle Passage in the form of the mass forced relocation to Central America.
Tough though these experiences have been, they helped to strengthen our spirit and shape our spirituality which is based on the principle of reciprocity captured in the Malí song in the words “Aura buni Iyaya waü, amürü nuni” – I for you, Grandmother, and you for me.
Yellow - The yellow strip at the bottom of the flag symbolizes the other half of the ancestry of the Garifuna – the Amerindians or Yellow Caribs as they were referred to by Europeans. These were actually a mixture of Caribs and Arawaks and formed the host community in which the fusion of Africa and South America took place to give rise to the emergence of the Garinagu as a distinct group indigenous to the circum-Caribbean region.
In contrast to the hardships experienced in the course of history, the yellow symbolizes the hope and prosperity. Yellow is the colour of grated cassava, which is further processed to make ereba, one of our staple foods. It is the colour of cassava juice, a colour that is further brought out in the process of turning it into dumari, an additive for enhancing sauces, soups and stews. (It seems to have been an identifying feature of Garifuna people as it is the “tumali” that is referred to in the racial slur “Salt head Kerub, tumali water”). Yellow is also the colour of the rising sun, which brings new promise and much hope for a better life. Yellow, therefore, represents hope, plenty and prosperity, as well as the Carib/Arawak input into the Garifuna identity.

White - The white strip, located in the middle between the black and the yellow, reminds us of the role of the white man (Europe) in the history and formation of the Garifuna people – the forcible removal and enslavement of the African, the seizure of Garifuna land, which precipitated the Garifuna resistance, and the forcible removal of the people from St. Vincent. Even after the arrival and dispersal in Central America, it was still necessary to deal with the white man.
At another level, white symbolizes the peace that has eluded the Garifuna people for most of their turbulent history - the peace for which they continue to yearn."
Finally, the author of the notice mentions a flag proposal: "It would be remiss of me not to mention an attempt made by Ruben Reyes to propose a flag for the Garifuna Nation. The colours are essentially the same. He also proposes a logo set in a shield in the center. I believe that it is a good effort and that the various country Garifuna organizations should respond to him with a view to its possible adoption." 
Ruben Reyes' proposal is for sale  at the Internet store of Garinet. 
We show in this page, two flags with the black stripe either on top or on bottom. As stated by the author of the notice, both combinations exist: "The relative position of the colours needs to be clarified or agreed. It is clear that the white strip is always in the middle.  The problem is with the black and yellow. I have referred to the black as being on top partly because of the location on the samples I looked at when I was writing this and partly because the colours have always been referred to as “black, white and yellow” and we normally start at the top. However, I have since seen some examples in which the black is at the bottom, including the proposal from my cousin, Ruben Reyes."
The website also contains an historial account of the Garífuna: "Traditional Garifuna communities are mainly found along the Caribbean Coast of Belize, Honduras and Nicaragua. Out of an estimated 500,000 Garinagu world-wide, there are today about 15,000 Garinagu in Belize (about 7 % of the total population). In Guatemala there are an estimated 4,000 Garinagu and in Honduras the population is around 300,000. Garifuna communites are also found in the USA in Los Angeles, Chicago, New York and New Orleans.
Garinagu (plural of Garifuna) or Black Caribs, are descendants of two ethnic groups, Carib Indians and Black Africans, that lived on the island of St. Vincent. 
Arawak Indians, also called Yurumei, the original inhabitants of St. Vincent, were invaded and conquered by Kalipuna (Carib) Indians, a tribe from mainland South America. The Arawak men were killed and the warriors took the women as wives and the Carib Indians originated as a mixture of these people.
Around 1635 two Spanish ships carrying Black Africans destined for slavery, to the West Indies shipwrecked near St. Vincent. Survivors escaped and swam ashore to St. Vincent where they settled and lived amongst the Carib Indians.
Over the next 150 years, the two groups intermixed and the Garifuna ethnic group also called Black Caribs was formed. By 1750 the Black Caribs were the dominant population of St. Vincent and quite prosperous. French settlers lived on the island as well.
The Black Carib men hunted and fished while the women did most of the farming. The Black Caribs also traded with nearby islands: tobacco and baskets for arms and European manufactured goods. In 1763 the British invaded the island trying to take over land from the Black Caribs to plant sugarcane. This struggle for land resulted in the Black Caribs trying to establish independence and control of the island. They were supported by the French with whom they did considerable trading and many years of battles between the Caribs and the British ensued. After losing a major battle in 1795, the French and the Black Caribs finally surrendered and the British took over the entire island. 
The British hunted down the Black Caribs, burned their houses and killed hundreds. Early in 1797 over 4000 Black Caribs were taken prisoner and sent to the Island of Baliceax where over half of them died from diseases like yellow fever and malaria. In 1798 the rest were exiled to the Island of Roatan, an island off the coast of Honduras. From Roatan the Black Caribs migrated to the mainland of Honduras (Truillo) and settled all along the Caribbean coast of Belize (then British Honduras), Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. 
According to legend, the first Garifuna arrived in British Honduras on November 19, 1802. Today this day is a national holiday and the arrival of the Garinagu is celebrated allover Belize with drumming, dancing and pageantry in Garifuna communities."
While we have written and iconographical sources for the Garífuna flag(s), there is no source available for the "Dangriga Flag".


Ivan Sache, 27 April 2008

                                       Historia DE BANDERA GARIFUNA

(PARA EL REGISTRO, NO EXISTE UNA BANDERA DE GARIFUNA PERO LOS COLORES SÍ. No estamos de acuerdo con la historia de Garinagu tal como está escrita en esta narración))


El sitio web del Consejo Nacional Garífuna de Belice tiene una descripción detallada de la bandera: "La bandera garífuna consta de tres franjas horizontales de color negro, blanco y amarillo, en ese orden, comenzando desde la parte superior. Esta bandera ha sido aceptada internacionalmente como La bandera de la Nación Garífuna y los colores se han utilizado en cualquier foro en el que los garifunas afirman su identidad garífuna. centrar.
Esta bandera representa una evolución que comenzó con la Carib International Society (CIS), cuya bandera estaba formada por franjas horizontales de rojo, amarillo y negro. El rojo (funati) representaba la sangre de los garífunas, el negro (würiti) la piel de los garífunas y el amarillo (dumari) la comida de los garífunas. T.V. Ramos agregó la franja blanca (haruti) en el medio, sustituyéndola por la roja, cuando formó la Carib Development Society (CDS). Carib International Society, como su nombre lo indica, tenía un alcance internacional y su desarrollo parece haber sido facilitado por la convergencia de Garinagu de varios países en lugares como Puerto Barrios, donde acudieron en busca de empleo con la United Fruit Company. El área de operaciones de la Sociedad de Desarrollo del Caribe, por otro lado, se limitó a Belice, aunque la influencia de sus iniciativas se extendió mucho más allá de las fronteras de Belice y sentó las bases para el surgimiento posterior de su sucesor, el Consejo Nacional Garífuna ".
El autor del aviso da una interpretación de los colores, indicando que no hay una fuente escrita para eso.
"¿Cuál es el significado de los colores de la bandera garífuna? Esta pregunta se ha hecho con bastante frecuencia y se han hecho algunos intentos para responderla, aunque no conozco ninguna explicación por escrito. Ahora trataré de reconstruir lo que he escuchado , con la esperanza de que esto evoque alguna reacción que pueda contribuir a una documentación completa y completa de la importancia de los colores. También se debe tener en cuenta que son las personas las que dan significado a los símbolos. Por lo tanto, tenemos la opción de expandirnos sobre los significados que nos hayan transmitido los creadores de las banderas CIS y CDS.
Negro: la franja negra, que se encuentra en la parte superior, representa la ascendencia negra del pueblo garífuna. La gente siempre ha reconocido el aporte africano en lo que se convirtió en el pueblo garífuna, un fenómeno que ocurrió en San Vicente a partir del siglo XVII.
Este color, en otro nivel, reconoce las dificultades e injusticias que las personas han tenido que soportar, sus luchas por la supervivencia y las probabilidades que han tenido que superar en el curso de su historia. Además de la experiencia del Pasaje Medio, que compartimos con otras personas negras de las Américas, estuvo el encarcelamiento en Balliceaux, el exilio de nuestra patria vicentina después de las llamadas Guerras Carib y la repetición del Pasaje Medio en forma de La reubicación forzada masiva a Centroamérica.
Por duras que hayan sido estas experiencias, ayudaron a fortalecer nuestro espíritu y dar forma a nuestra espiritualidad, que se basa en el principio de reciprocidad capturado en la canción de Malí en las palabras "Aura buni Iyaya waü, amürü nuni" - Yo para ti, abuela y tú para mi.
Amarillo: la franja amarilla en la parte inferior de la bandera simboliza la otra mitad de la ascendencia de los garífunas: los amerindios o caribes amarillos, como los europeos los llamaron. En realidad, eran una mezcla de caribes y arawaks y formaron la comunidad anfitriona en la que se produjo la fusión de África y América del Sur para dar lugar a la aparición de los garinagu como un grupo distinto indígena de la región circuncaribeña.
En contraste con las dificultades experimentadas en el curso de la historia, el amarillo simboliza la esperanza y la prosperidad. El amarillo es el color de la yuca rallada, que se procesa aún más para hacer ereba, uno de nuestros alimentos básicos. Es el color del jugo de yuca, un color que se pone de manifiesto en el proceso de convertirlo en dumari, un aditivo para mejorar las salsas, sopas y guisos. (Parece haber sido una característica de identificación del pueblo garífuna, ya que es el "tumali" al que se hace referencia en el insulto racial "Cabeza de sal Kerub, agua de tumali"). El amarillo también es el color del sol naciente, lo que trae nuevas promesas y muchas esperanzas para una vida mejor. El amarillo, por lo tanto, representa esperanza, abundancia y prosperidad, así como el aporte carib / arawak en la identidad garífuna.

Blanco: la franja blanca, ubicada en el medio entre el negro y el amarillo, nos recuerda el papel del hombre blanco (Europa) en la historia y la formación del pueblo garífuna: la eliminación forzada y la esclavitud del africano, la captura. de la tierra garífuna, que precipitó la resistencia garífuna, y la expulsión forzosa de la gente de San Vicente. Incluso después de la llegada y la dispersión en América Central, aún era necesario tratar con el hombre blanco.
En otro nivel, el blanco simboliza la paz que ha eludido al pueblo garífuna durante la mayor parte de su turbulenta historia: la paz por la que siguen anhelando ".
Finalmente, el autor del aviso menciona una propuesta de bandera: "Sería negligente de mi parte no mencionar un intento realizado por Rubén Reyes para proponer una bandera para la nación garífuna. Los colores son esencialmente los mismos. También propone un conjunto de logotipos en un escudo en el centro. Creo que es un buen esfuerzo y que las diversas organizaciones garífunas del país deberían responderle con miras a su posible adopción ".
La propuesta de Rubén Reyes está a la venta en la tienda de Internet de Garinet.
Mostramos en esta página dos banderas con la franja negra en la parte superior o inferior. Según lo declarado por el autor de la notificación, ambas combinaciones existen: "La posición relativa de los colores necesita ser aclarada o acordada. Está claro que la franja blanca siempre está en el medio. El problema es con el negro y el amarillo. I Me he referido al negro como en la parte superior en parte debido a la ubicación en las muestras que miré cuando escribía esto y en parte porque los colores siempre se han denominado "negro, blanco y amarillo" y normalmente comenzamos en la parte superior Sin embargo, desde entonces he visto algunos ejemplos en los que el negro está en la parte inferior, incluida la propuesta de mi primo, Rubén Reyes ".
El sitio web también contiene una cuenta histórica de los garífunas: "Las comunidades garífunas tradicionales se encuentran principalmente a lo largo de la costa caribeña de Belice, Honduras y Nicaragua. De un estimado de 500,000 garinagu en todo el mundo, hoy hay alrededor de 15,000 garinagu en Belice (alrededor del 7% de la población total). En Guatemala se estima que hay 4,000 Garinagu y en Honduras la población es de alrededor de 300,000. Las comunidades garífunas también se encuentran en los Estados Unidos en Los Ángeles, Chicago, Nueva York y Nueva Orleans.
Garinagu (plural de garífuna) o caribes negros, son descendientes de dos grupos étnicos, los indios caribes y los africanos negros, que vivían en la isla de San Vicente.
Los indios arawak, también llamados Yurumei, los habitantes originales de San Vicente, fueron invadidos y conquistados por los indios Kalipuna (caribes), una tribu de América del Sur continental. Los hombres arawak fueron asesinados y los guerreros tomaron a las mujeres como esposas y los indios caribes se originaron como una mezcla de estas personas.
Alrededor de 1635, dos barcos españoles que transportaban africanos negros destinados a la esclavitud, a las Indias Occidentales naufragaron cerca de San Vicente. Los sobrevivientes escaparon y nadaron hasta San Vicente, donde se establecieron y vivieron entre los indios caribes.
Durante los siguientes 150 años, los dos grupos se mezclaron y se formó el grupo étnico garífuna también llamado Black Caribs. Para 1750, los caribes negros eran la población dominante de San Vicente y bastante prósperos. Los colonos franceses también vivían en la isla.
Los hombres caribes negros cazaban y pescaban mientras que las mujeres se dedicaban a la agricultura. Los caribes negros también comerciaban con islas cercanas: tabaco y cestas para armas y productos manufacturados europeos. En 1763, los británicos invadieron la isla tratando de tomar tierras de los caribes negros para plantar caña de azúcar. Esta lucha por la tierra dio como resultado que los caribes negros intentaran establecer la independencia y el control de la isla. Fueron apoyados por los franceses con quienes comerciaron considerablemente y se produjeron muchos años de batallas entre los caribes y los británicos. Después de perder una gran batalla en 1795, los caribes franceses y negros finalmente se rindieron y los británicos se apoderaron de toda la isla.
Los británicos cazaron a los caribes negros, quemaron sus casas y mataron a cientos. A principios de 1797, más de 4000 caribes negros fueron hechos prisioneros y enviados a la isla de Baliceax, donde más de la mitad de ellos murieron a causa de enfermedades como la fiebre amarilla y la malaria. En 1798, el resto fue exiliado a la isla de Roatán, una isla frente a las costas de Honduras. Desde Roatán, los caribes negros emigraron a la parte continental de Honduras (Truillo) y se establecieron a lo largo de la costa caribeña de Belice (entonces Honduras Británica), Guatemala, Honduras y Nicaragua.
Según la leyenda, el primer garífuna llegó a Honduras Británica el 19 de noviembre de 1802. Hoy es feriado nacional y la llegada del Garinagu se celebra en todo Belice con tambores, bailes y boato en las comunidades garífunas ".
Si bien tenemos fuentes escritas e iconográficas para la (s) bandera (s) garífuna, no hay una fuente disponible para la "Bandera Dangriga".


Ivan Sache, 27 de abril de 2008

 

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